阿德莱德代写assignment:孩子的互动
ASSIGNMENT代写

阿德莱德代写assignment:孩子的互动

2018-07-15 21:01

然而,Tharp和Gallimore(1998)认为,在家长和孩子的互动中,这种辅助表现通常是显而易见的,而且是成功的,在课堂中的师生关系中很少发现。协助者,如果他或她要在ZPD有效地工作,必须与学习者与任务的关系保持密切的联系。简而言之,在课堂上,似乎每个老师都有太多的孩子,没有足够的时间与ZPD紧密合作。正如Tharp和Gallimore所观察到的,“公共教育不太可能重新组织成每个7个学生的教室”(1998年,第107页)。然而,他们仍然保持乐观,认为通过创新的教学实践促进的小组合作工作,加上新材料和新技术的日益使用,可以为辅助工作在未来蓬勃发展创造条件。综上所述,Vygotsky关于最近发展区的工作,以及与之相关的脚手架和指导参与的概念,激发了人们对儿童发展本身的本质、它与儿童学习的关系以及对课堂实践的启示的思考和研究。显然,对于儿童与“有知识的人”的关系、同伴协作的性质和价值、成人辅助学习的性质和范围,以及所有这些对可实现的学习质量的影响,存在着截然不同的看法。正如Tharp和Gallimore(1998)、King和O'Donnell(1999)等人所主张的,似乎有效地与ZPD合作不仅要考虑到个体因素和儿童、成人和同龄人之间的即时人际互动,而且还要考虑到对儿童和成人的无数文化历史影响。这无疑对当前公共教育课堂规模和组织结构的限制提出了挑战。一些研究,例如Baker-Sennett等人(1998)的描述,已经表明,通过敏感和创造性的课堂实践,可以通过使用ZPD创造最佳学习条件。
阿德莱德代写assignment:孩子的互动
Tharp and Gallimore (1998) suggest, however, that the kind of assisted performance commonly evident, and successful, in the interactions of parents and children is rarely found in teacher/student relationships within the classroom.  The assistor, if he or she is to work effectively within the ZPD, must remain in close touch with the learner's relationship to the task.  In short, it seems that commonly in the classroom, there are too many children for each teacher and not enough time available for working closely enough with the ZPD.  As Tharp and Gallimore observe, “public education is not likely to reorganise into classrooms of seven pupils each” (1998, p.107).  They do remain optimistic, however, suggesting that small group collaborative working, promoted through innovative instructional practices, together with the increasing use of new materials and technology could create the conditions for assisted performance to flourish in the future.In conclusion, then, Vygotsky's work on the zone of proximal development, and its associated concepts of scaffolding and guided participation, has stimulated thinking and research about the nature of child development itself, its relationship to children's learning and the implications for classroom practice.  It seems clear that there are contrasting views on the ways in which children relate to the ‘knowledgeable other', the nature and value of peer collaboration, the nature and extent of adult-assisted learning and the implications of all this for the quality of learning achievable.  As Tharp and Gallimore (1998), King and O'Donnell (1999) and others argue, it seems that working effectively with the ZPD must take account of not only individual factors and immediate interpersonal interactions between children, adults and peers, but also the myriad of cultural-historical influences upon children and adults.  This undoubtedly presents a challenge in terms of current constraints on classroom size and organisation in public education.  Some research studies, for example the account by Baker-Sennett et al (1998), have shown that through sensitive and creative classroom practice the conditions for optimal learning through working with the ZPD can be created.