悉尼assignment代写 行为主义

2020-03-10 02:24

尽管行为主义和心理动力学的研究方法有所不同,但是,他们都认为创伤性事件会对孩子一生的整体健康产生影响。他们认为,人类对满足他们需要的人产生依恋(Stroebe 1987)。因此,依恋在儿童生活中起着关键作用。Hammen(1998)指出,如果一个孩子在童年时期没有经历正常的父母和孩子之间的关系,比如被爱、被重视和被接受,他们可能会以不适应的方式发展。Lewinsohn(1974)强调,当环境中响应条件正强化的数量减少时,抑郁就会发生。因此,例如,一个孩子在一次事故中失去了父母,被寄养可能会发展成抑郁症。此外,Bowley(1981)认为,失去爱或童年早期缺乏依恋不仅会导致抑郁,还会对孩子的性格产生影响,并影响他们成年后的功能。他强调了早期依恋关系的重要性,指出“每个婴儿都有一种与初级护理人员形成依恋关系的内在和基本倾向,以保护、生存和健康发展”(临104)。因此,他认为,一个孩子和一个开放的、善良和支持性护理接受者父母会使用从而成长关系为基础,形成一个良好的社会网络与人,并采取必要的技能提升为了克服困难的情况下如抑郁症与那些厌恶体验这样的失去亲人或死亡。因此,在此之前,一个孩子因为爱一个人而患上抑郁症,这可能也会对他们的社会生活产生影响,比如在他们成长的过程中感到悲伤和孤独,尤其是当他们看到其他孩子和他们的父母在一起玩的时候。Candy(2018)的一项研究发现,与心境恶劣等其他精神疾病相比,儿童和成年人被诊断为抑郁症的人数都更高。早发性抑郁症患者中,精神障碍234例,精神障碍74例,成人155例,精神障碍26例。在那些早发和晚发的抑郁症患者中,研究结果证实他们在童年时期更容易遭受虐待。
悉尼assignment代写 行为主义
Despite the differences of the behaviourism and psychodynamic approach, however, the both assume that traumatic events can have effect on the overall wellbeing on child throughout their life. They perceive that human beings develop attachment for people that satisfies their needs (Stroebe 1987).  Thus, attachment plays a key role in children life. Hammen (1998) pointed out that if a child does not experience normal parent and child bond during their childhood such as being love, valued and accepted, they may develop in maladaptive ways.  Lewinsohn (1974) emphasized that depression occurs when there is a decrease in the amount of response- contingent positive reinforcement in the environment. Therefore, for instance a child who loses a parent in an accident and goes into foster care might develop depression.  Moreover, Bowley (1981 ) argued that not merely does the loss of a love or lack of early childhood attachment induce into depression but can have implications on the child’s personality and affect their functioning in adulthood.  He focused on the importance of early attachment bond by stating that every “infant have an innate and fundamental tendency to form attachments bonds to a primary care taker, in the service of protection, survival and healthy development” (p.104). Therefore, he argued that a child with an open, kind and supportive care taker parent would grow up using thus relationship as a basis to form a good social network with people and adopt necessary skills in lift in order to overcome difficult situations such as depression unlike those with aversive experiences such loss of a loved one or death. Therefore, prior to the example concerning a child developing depression as a result of a love one, this might also have impact on their social life such as feeling sad and isolated whiles growing up particularly when they see other kids with their parents having fun. A study by Candy (2018) found that the number of people diagnosed with depression was both higher for children and adults compared to other mental disorders such as dysthymia. For those with early onset depression, there were 234 compared to 74 for dysthymia and for adults there 155 compared to 26 with dysthymia. Among those with early and late onset depression, the results confirmed that they more often experience abuse in their childhood.

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